I'm working on a new project to map the locations of discoveries by zone in WildStar. Starting with Whitevale (my favorite zone!), I've mapped the discovery locations that I have been able to find. If you find an additional Discovery and would like to add it to this list, please contact Disco via Twitter or email with a map screenshot of your character on the spot or with map coordinates. Due to the random nature of WildStar discoveries and the possibility of other players triggering the discovery, any individual discovery may not be present.
Discoveries in each zone contain either an automated buff station, a box with treasure, a box containing one piece of a set of gear unique to the zone, a zone-unique pet, or access to a hidden area that may include additional treasure. As far as I can tell, what type of discovery you will receive is completely random though the buff stations are by far the most common.